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Latin name Common name Maori name Family Previous names Description Distribution Status Action Treatment Animals Part utilised Preparation Rongoa rakau Related species used overseas Palatability Plant recovery Toxicity Chemistry Activity assays Food Traditional uses Ecological connections Bee friendly Scientific references   Other
Native plants used to treat animals  
Acaena anserinifolia Biddybid Piripiri, Hutiwai, Kaikaiārure, Piriwhetau Rosaceae   Creeping herb, forms patches with diameter up to 1 m. North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   A relation (not specified) used to prevent scour in calves (Brooker et al. 1987) Infusion given to calves to prevent  scour (McDonald 1974) Calves (Brooker et al. 1987)(McDonald 1974)    Infusion (Brooker et al. 1987) (McDonald 1974) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Plant grew abundantly before the introduction of grazing animals (MR)   _   Bloor (1995) Enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al 1992) Settlers drank biddy-bid tea (MR)   Seeds dispersed by attaching to fur and feathers (NZPCN) No reference found     Unwanted on farms, seeds attach to sheep's wool (Williams, 1996)
Brachyglottis repanda Rangiora, Wharangi Rangiora, Pukapuka, Whārangi, Raurēkau, Aorangi Asteraceae   Large shrub, thin mottled leaves with jagged edges, white flowers (NZPCN) North and South Islands, Stewart Island (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) TOXIC Horses fed leaves to break them or shoe. Fed leaves and broken in one day  (anon informant) Horses _ _ Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) No examples in MR     Farm animals show disorientation after eating leaves (RS)  Cause 'staggers' in stock (Brooker et al 1987) Very poisonous cattle and horses,fatal to horses if eaten in quanity (MR) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Benn and Gul, 2007) Hepatotoxin (Brooker et al 1987)     Leaves hold spiritual meaning. Leaves were used to wrap food for steam oven (MC)   Yes (FF) but honey is toxic (MR)     Leaves represented life forces in ceremonies for the dead (MR)
Clematis forsteri Forster's clematis, smaller clematis Pikiarero Ranunculaceae Vine/climber with cream flowers (NZPCN) North Island, South Island from Canterbury northwards (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Leaves = counter irritant (MR; Brooker et al., 1987) Horses' 'chafed fetlocks' (Brooker et al., 1987) Horses (Brooker et al., 1987) Sap  Yes (Brooker et al., 1987; MR) Yes (Brooker et al., 1987; MR) Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Clematis spp. Huryn (1995)  
Clematis paniculata Bush clematis, white clematis Puawananga, Pikiarero Ranunculaceae C. indivisa High climbing, evergreen woody vine, white flowers (NZPCN).  Endemic, Chatham, North, South and Stewart Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Fetlock of horse chafed by rope or cut by wire (McDonald; Adams, 1945) Horses (McDonald, Adams, 1945) Sap Open end of stem (containing sap) was held to the wound. Or,the other end of the stem was blown through to apply the sap to the wound (McDonald; Adams, 1945) Yes (MR) Yes (MR)  
Coprosma grandifolia Large-leaved coporosma Manono, Kanono, Pāpāuma, Raurēkau Rubiaceae   Large shrub up to 6 m (LCR). Pairs of thin, oval leaves up to 20 cm long. Clusters of orange fruit (NZPCN) North Is. South Is, extending from Lake Ianthe in west to Malborough Sounds in east (NCPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) "Sealed up" wound, stopped bleeding, kept flies away (MR) Deep cuts, scratches (MR) Horses (MR) "Juice" of plant (MR) Juice applied to wounds (MR) Yes (MR)   Eaten by feral goats (Mitchell et al., 1987) _ _       Yellow dye (MR) Dispersed by frugivory (NZPCN) No reference found      
Coprosma robusta Karamū Karamū, Kāramuramu, Ka(ka)rangū Rubiaceae   Bushy shrub up to 6m. Numerous branches, pairs of glossy leaves, red fruit (NZPCN)  North, South and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   Wounds: "Healing pig-ripped dogs" (MR) Dogs (MR) Not specified…   Yes Yes (MR) Cows were 'fond' of karamū (MR)   _   Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986)   Spiritually significant plant (MR) Fruit dispersed by birds (NZPCN) Yes (FF)      
Coriaria arborea (Williams, 1996) Corriara spp. (MR) Toot, tutu, tree tutu Tutu, Tūpākihi, Puhou Coriariaceae   Robust large shrub, much-branched, flowers in drooping spikes up to 30cm long (NZPCN) Found throughought New Zealand (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) TOXIC Horse problems eg., sprains, cuts and swollen joints (Williams, 1996) Horses (Williams, 1996) Leaves Poultice or infusion of toot leaves (Williams, 1996) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Eaten by forest birds (O'Donnell and Dilks, 1994), eaten by possums (Fitzgerald, 1976), Coriaria arborea var. kermadecensis, eaten by goats (Parkes, 1984) Birds and rabbits are unaffected by poisonous tutu seeds in berries (MR)   Death when stock ate tutu foliage on empty stomach. Stock with full stomachs could often eat leaves All parts of plant (except for juice of ripe berry) toxic (MR) Tutin (NZPCN, Brooker et al., 1987) Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986), enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al., 1992) Old Maori drank tutu juice, Europeans and missionaries made tutu wine (MR)   Berries are dispersed by frugivory  (NZPCN) Poisonous honey (Brooker et al., 1987)      
Cyathea medullaris Black tree fern Mamaku (MR) Kōrau, katātā, pītau (Landcare Research)  Cyatheaceae   Large tree fern up to 20 m tall. Black stalked leaves up to 5 m (NZPCN) From TKI to Stewart Is. Uncommon eastern SI (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   Saddle sores (MR)  Horses (MR) Fronds Hairy outer skin scraped off inner frond, slimy tissue applied to wound.  Applied as poultice raw or boiled (Adams, 1945; MR, Brooker, Cambie and Cooper, 1981; Brooker er al., 1987 McDonald 1973) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Eaten by possums (Fitzgerald, 1976)   _     Piths of stems eaten (MR) (LCR)     No reference found Biological activity - antiviral (Bloor, 1995)    
Dacrydium cupressinum Rimu, red pine Rimu Podocarpaceae Conifer, 35-60 m tall. Trunk 1.5-2 m diameter, dark brown bark falls off in flakes (NZPCN) North, South and Stewart Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Haemostatic Bark = astrigent (MR) Gall sores, sore backs pack horses Horses (MR) Inner bark (MR) Barks of rātā  and rimu are boiled together, resulting liquid used as lotion (MR) Lotion from boiled bark of rimu,rata and kauri used as lotion for pack saddle sores Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Diterpenoids (Brooker et al., 1987) Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al 1992) Berries were eaten by Maori (MR) Captain Cook's crew made 'spruce beer' out of rimu and mānuka twigs (antiscorbutic) (MR). More recently, rimu twigs included in homebrew beer (MR). Spears made out of rimu hard wood (MR) Seeds dispersed by frugivory (NZPCN) No reference found  
Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus, blue gum Purukamu Myrtaceae   Medium-very tall tree, can reach 70 m (NZPCN)       Healing wounds Dog (MR) Horses (MR) Leaves (MR) Solution  or fomentation of boiled gum leaves (MR) Yes (MR) Yes (MR)     _   Antibacterial activity (Cimanga et al., 2002; Srinivasan et al., 2001)       Yes (FF)     Planted by settlers in groves (MR)
Gaultheria antipoda Snowberry False beech Pāpapa, Koropuka, Tāwiniwini, Tūmingi Ericaceae   Erect or spreading shrub 0.5-2 m (NTALC)   Non-threatened (NZPCN) Lactagogue  Emollient Healing cuts Horses (MR) Leaves (MR) Poultice (MR) Decoction (MR) decoction, liuid applied to wound (Brooker et al 1981) Yes Yes (MR) Avoided deer goats (Forsyth, 2002). Eaten Chamois (Christie, 1964)   Oil of wintergreen in large doses (MR) Phenols and flavonoids (Middleton, 1992) Antibiotics (Calder, 1986) Berries for Maori, also sheep musterers and prospectors of Otago (MR)   Fruit eaten by lizards and geckos
(Whittaker, 1987)
Seed dispersal by Weta (Duthie, 2006)
Yes (Huryn, 2012) Chromosomes (Middleton, 1990)  Oil of Wintergreen,methyl salicylate (MR)   Snowberries are a favourite food of weka (MR)
Haloragis erecta Shrubby haloragis Toatoa Haloragaceae   Herb, stems up to 1 m, decumbent to erect.    Kermadec, North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   "Sick horses" (MR) Horses (MR) Leaves   Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Cows "eat it with relish" (MR) Establishment following fire (Yeates and Lee, 1997)     Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986), Bloor (1995) Used by both Māori and Pākehā to make herbal tea (MR)     No reference found      
Hebe salicifolia, H. stricta, H. elliptica etc Hebe, veronica Koromiko, Korohiko, Kōkōmuka, Korokio Plantaginaceae Bushy shrub with narrow.pointed leaves, up to 5m  (NZPCN, NZF) South Island, Stewart Island (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Astringent Prevents scouring, treating scour Cattle (MR) sheep (MR) Horses and cattle (Neil 1889)  Plant eaten by cattle (MR), decoction for sheep (MR) A handful of leaves chopped up amongst the feed for horses (Neil 1889) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Cattle eat the plant with 'avidity' (MR) _ H. salicifolia: Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Enzyme inhibitory activity Kellam et al 1992 Supernatural and medicinal uses, used in ritual ceremonias (MR) Yes (FF)  
Metrosideros fulgens Red flowering rātā Aka, Akakura, Puatawhiwhi, Torotoro Myrtaceae Forest liane up to 10 m long (LCR) North Island, west of South Island  Not threatened (NZPCN) Antiseptic, astringent Healing wounds, eg., "dog ripped by pigs" (Adams, 1945) Dogs (MR) Sap from the vines (MR) Sap blown directly onto wound Yes Yes (MR) Eaten by possums (Allen et al. 1997) Decocotion of inner bark and boiling water becomes more poisonous over time (MR) Cambie (1976) Bilogical activity (Bloor 1995) Bushmen used moisture in vine to quench thirst (MR) Browsing by possums (Allen et al. 1997), biological activity (Bloor, 2012)  
Metrosideros robusta Northern rātā Rātā Myrtaceae Tall forest tree 25-40 m tall, oval leaves, roots extend down host tree, red flowers in summer (NZPCN) North and South Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Antiseptic,astringent Gall sores, sore backs pack horses Horses (MR) Bark (MR) inner bark used for sore backs Bark of rātā and rimu boiled together, resulting liquid used as lotion (MR) For sore backs lotion made from boiled inner bark of rata, bark of rimu and kauri Yes (MR) Threatened by possums (NZPCN), prime food source for possums (Williams, 1996) _ People would sip natural honey from purāwai rātā, (rātā blossom) (MR) Coils around host tree, host tree may die (MR) Kaka fond of juice from rata blossoms (MR) Yes (FF)  
Myoporum laetum Ngaio Ngaio, Kaio Scrophulariaceae Spreading tree up to 10 m tall, glossy spotted oval leaves. White flowers with purple spots, pink fruit (NZPCN, LCR) Three Kings, North and South Islands, scarce Chatham Islands  (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Poultice of leaves had a 'great drawing effect' on a wounded horse (Williams, 1996) Wounds, sheep dip when nothing else available (Brooker et al 1987) Horses (MR) (Williams 1996) Sheep ( Brooker et al 1987) Leaves (MR) (Brooker et al 1987) Leaves are 'bruised and warmed to relase oil', makes an 'effective pack for septic wounds' (MR, Brooker et al., 1987) Poultice of leaves ( Williams 1996) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Proliferation of ngaio over Korapuki Is following eradication of mammals (Towns 2002) Leaves are toxic , cattle deaths common(MR)  Leaves toxic have caused liver damage in sheep (Brooker and Cooper) Wood and dried berries low toxicity (MR) Essential oil contains ngaione (a liver toxin) (Brooker et al. 1987) Ngaione is related to furfural which has fungicidal and bacterial properties Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Juice from bark/leaves used as insect repellant (MR) Geckos consume honeydew produced by scale insects infesting ngaio (Towns, 2002) Yes (FF) Identification of liver toxin in ngaio leaves (Denz and Hanger 1996) Leaves were rubbed over skin as insecticide (McDonald 1974)
Pelargonium inodorum Scentless pelargonium Kōpata, Kapurangi, Kurakura, Pōrewarewa Geraniaceae Pelargonium clandestinum (MR) Low-growing hairy herb with sprawling stems (NZF) North and South Islands (NZF) Not threatened (NZPCN) Reduces inflammation, astringent   Horses (MR) Leaves (MR) Poultice (MR) Yes (MR) Yes (MR)     _           No reference found     Used by 'outsettlers' (MR)
Phormium tenax New Zealand flax Harakeke Xanthorrhoeaceae   Stout herb, numerous long leaves, taller flowering shoot, 1-5 m (NZPCN)   Indigenous to NZ (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) Anthelmintic Ringworm Calves (MR) Flax gum (MR)  Gum applied to area (MR) Yes   Palatable to  deer, goats and cattle (Litherland et al., 2008). Flowers are in bloom November to January - attracts birds (McDonald)   _ The gum has 'a distinct alkaline reaction' (MR) Antifungal compounds in roots of flax plant (Harvey and Waring, 1987), antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986)   Spiritual healing, producing soft fibre (MR)   Yes (FF) Evaluation of anthelmintic properties (Litherland et al., 2008)    
Pittosporum eugenioides Lemonwood Tarata Pittosporaceae   Tree with numerous branches, erect then spreading. Light green oval leaves, yellow flowers. Up to 12 m tall, although usually much less (NZPCN) North, South Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   "Raw places" on a horse with saddle sore (MR) Horse (MR) Leaves Leaves chewed and made into  a paste (MR) Yes (MR) Yes (MR)       Heartwood contains scoparone (6,7-Dimethoxycoumarin) (Brooker et al., 1987) Enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al., 1992)   Used in Maori perfume (MR)   Yes (FF)      
Plagianthus divarticatus Marsh ribbonwood, salt marsh ribbonwood Runa, Mākaka Malvaceae   Bushy tangled shrub, small drooping flowers, up to 2 m tall (NZPCN, LCR) Coastal areas of NZ Not threatened (NZPCN) Anthelminthic Worms , ringworm Horses and cattle (MR) Leaves (MR) Runa is boiled and the water given lukewarm, hot solution is applied to mane and back (MR) Yes (MR)           Bloor (1995)   Used to cure ringworm in humans (MR)   Yes (Huryn, 1995)      
Ripogonum scandens Supplejack Kareao, Karewao, Pirita Ripogonaceae   Twining forest liane (NZPCN) North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN)   Wounds Dogs (MR) Sap from young shoots (MR) Sap expressed and dropped onto wound (MR) Yes Yes (MR) Highly palatable to cattle (Timmins, 2002). Fruit eaten by feral pigs (Thomson and Challies), feral goats (Mitchell et al., 1987) and deer (Nugent and Challies, 1988). Eaten by possums (Fitzgerald, 1976), forest birds (O'Donnell and Dilks, 1994).     Antioxidant levels (Gould et al., 06) Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Sap chewed like sugarcane (MR), fermenting sap used as yeast (MR), Supplejack beer (MR) Stems traditionally used by Maori to make eel traps (NZPCN)   No reference found     "Another method was to burn the end of a twig and apply this to cauterise a wound, or break off a young shoot, and apply the the juice which exudes from it to a wound for the same purpose. Both these methods were employed when a dog was gored by a wild pig", (McDonald)
Rubus cissoides Bush lawyer Tarāmoa, Tātarāmoa Rosaceae   Liane/prickly scrambling vine, up to 15 m tall (NZPCN, LCR)  Forest throughout NZ (Brooker et al., 1987) Not threatened (NZPCN)   Scour (MR) "Animals" (MR) Above ground plant(MR) Decoction Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Rubus spp. eaten by deer and goats but not a 'preferred' food source (Forsyth et al., 2002)  Yes (Wilson, 1994)     Enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al., 1992) Leaves used to make tea (MR)     No reference found      
Solanum aviculare, S. laciniatum (Brooker et al. (1987) note that Maori probably did not distinguish between the two species). MR does not distinguish between the two species. Adams 1945 S. Aviculare Bullabull Poroporo, Pōporo, Kohoho Solanaceae S. aviculare: a woody shrub, dark green narrow leaves, white or pink flowers. Up to 3 m tall. S. laciniatum: soft wooded shrub, dark green wide leaves, purplish flowers. Up to  4 m tall.  S. aviculare: Kermadec, North, South and Chatham Islands (NZPCN). S. laciniatum: North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands.  S. aviculare at risk/declining. S. laciniatum: not threatened (NZPCN) Sheep scab (MR) (Adams 1945) Sheep (MR) (Adams 1945) Leaves Young leaves were mixed with lard and applied as a healing salve (Adams, 1945) Yes (MR) Yes (MR) Birds eat fruit (Williams and Karl, 1996) Yellow or green berries are poisonous from both S. aviculare and S. laciniatum (NZPCN). Both responsible for poisoning of cattle and sheep (Parton and Bruere, 2002). Steroidal alkaloid solasodine (Weston, 1976; Brooker et al., 1987; Kittipongpatana et al., 1998) S. laciniatum: Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Berries were eaten by Maori, stewed by English settlers (berries are safe to eat when ripe) (MR) No reference found  
                                                     
   
Plants poisonous to livestock                                                    
Arthropodium cirratum New Zealand rock lily, Renga lily, Rengarenga Rengarenga, Māikaika Asparagaceae   Perennial herb (LCR) North Island, South Island (found North of Kaikoura) (LCR) Not threatened (NZPCN) _   No _ _ Yes Yes _   Arthropodium candidum is poisonousous - 'the instinct of wandering animals warned them never to touch it' (MR,)     Roots were roasted or cooked and eaten by Maori (MR)            
Brachyglottis repanda Rangiora, Wharangi Rangiora, Pukapuka, Whārangi, Raurēkau, Aorangi Asteraceae   Large shrub, thin mottled leaves with jagged edges, white flowers (NZPCN) North and South Islands, Stewart Island (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) _   Horses, cattle _ _ Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) No examples in MR     Farm animals show disorientation after eating leaves (RS)  Cause 'staggers' in stock (Brooker et al 1987) Very poisonous cattle and horses,fatal to horses if eaten in quanity (MR) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Benn and Gul, 2007) Hepatotoxin (Brooker et al 1987)     Leaves hold spiritual meaning. Leaves were used to wrap food for steam oven (MC)   Yes (FF) but honey is toxic (MR)     Leaves represented life forces in ceremonies for the dead (MR)
Chenopodium album Fat-hen, lamb's quarters Huainanga Amaranthaceae   Erect or spreading herb, stems up to 2 m tall (LCR) North and South Island (LCR) Exotic (NZPCN) _   Cattle (Brooker et al., 1987) _ _ Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) _   Fat-hen 'apparently' responsible for poisoning of dairy cattle (Brooker et al., 1987) Soluble oxalates /oxalic acid (Brooker et al., 1987)   Leaves boiled and eaten as a vegetable (Brooker et al., 1987)             
Euphorbia peplus Milkweed, petty spurge Kaikaiatua Euphorbiaceae   Erect or spreading annual, stems 5 - 40 cm high (LCR) North Island, South Island, (LCR) Exotic (NZPCN) _   No _ _ Yes (MR) Yes (MR) _   Poisonous to sheep and cows. Browsing ulcerates lips of cattle Milky white sap consists of  corrosive latex (MR) Responsible for vomiting and purgation when ingested by domesticated animals (Brooker, Cambie and Cooper, 1981) Alkaloids and a glycoside cause toxic symptoms (Brooker, Cambie and Cooper, 1981)                
Hypericum perforatum St. John's wort - Hypericaceae   Perennial herb, golden yellow flowers, up to 1 m tall (NZPCN) North Island, South Island (LCR_ Exotic (NZPCN) _   No _ _ Yes (MR) Yes (MR) _   Poisonous to animals (MR) Poisonous to sheep and cattle (Brooker et al 1987)     Tea made from leaves and fruit (MR)            
Pimelea prostrata  Strathmore weed Pinātoro, Wharengārara Thymelaeaceae   Small, low growing shrub, hairy branches up to 30 cm long. Small white flowers (NZPCN) North and South Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) _   Horses (MR) _ _ Yes Yes   Often first coloniser along banks of flooded rivers (Brooker er al., 1987) Horses have died after eating pimelea (MR), toxic to livestock esp. horses (Brooker er al., 1987) All parts of plant toxic except for the berries (MR)           No reference found Distribution of subspecies (Burrows, 2009)    
Pteridium esculentum Bracken, bracken fern, Austral bracken Rahurahu, rarahu, rarauhe, marohi, takaka Dennstaedtiaceae   Fern with deeply rooted creeping rhizomes (NZPCN) North, South, Stewart, Chatham, Antipodes and Kermadec Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) _   Horses and cattle (Brooker et al., 1987) Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) Responsible for poisoning cattle, Contains thiaminase. This causes a vitamin B deficiency, which results in poisoning, especially for horses and cattle (Brooker et al., 1987) Carcinogenic properties , contains thiaminase  (enzyme which destroys thiamine)(Brooker et al., 1987) Enzyme inhibitory activity (Kellam et al., 1992) Root was a main source of food for Maori (Brooker er al., 1987)  
Ranunculus amphitrichus Water buttercup Waoriki, Raoriki, Roroki Ranunculaceae Perennial, swamp plant (NZPCN) North, South and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) _ No _ _ Yes (MR) Yes (MR) _ Fresh plant poisonous to cattle, although hay containing the dry plant can be eaten (MR) grows in water which increases chances of stock poisoning , most toxic native species of Ranunculus (Brooker et al., 1987) Buttercup species are irritants. Active compound is the toxin protoanemonin (MR) Honey from flowers safe to eat if left for two months (MR) wild bees 'fond of flowers' (MR)  
                                                     
Rumex acetosella Sheep's sorrel, dock Paewhenua, runa Polygonaceae   Perennial herb, flowering stems up to 30 cm (LCR) North and South Islands (LCR) Exotic (NZPCN) _   Sheep particularly susceptible to oxalates _ _ Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) _   Responsible for livestock poisoning , soluble oxalates are toxic when eaten in large quantities particularly for sheep (Brooker et al 1987) Rumex spp. contain  soluble oxalates (Brooker et al., 1987)                
Scandia rosefolia Rose-leaved anise Koheriki, Kohepiro, Kūmarahou Apiaceae Angelica rosaefolia Erect or sprawling woody shrub up to 1x1 m. North Island (see NZPCN more details) At risk/declining (NZPCN) _   Cattle (MR) _ _ Yes (MR) Yes (MR)     No cure for cattle who had eaten 'a species of kohepiro' (MR)           No reference found Essential oils (Weston, 2010)    
Tetragonia tetragonioides New Zealand spinach Kōkihi Aizoaceae   Perennial herb, branches up to 1 m North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands (NZPCN) At risk     Sheep (MR) _ _ Yes (MR)       "Dangerous" to sheep (MR) Contains oxalates (MR) Antibiotic activity (Calder et al., 1986) Substitute for true spinach (MR)     No reference found      
Urtica ferox Tree nettle Ongaonga, Taraongaonga Urticaceae   Large shrub with stinging hairs, up to 3 m tall (NZPCN) Endemic, North and South Islands (NZPCN) Not threatened (NZPCN) _   Horses and dogs (Brooker et al., 1987) _ _ Yes (Brooker et al., 1987) Yes (MR) _   Dangerous to horses and dogs (Brooker et al., 1987) Dogs and horses have developed neurological problems, respiratory distress and convulsions after exposure (NZPCN)                  
                                  Responsible for vomiting and purgation when ingested by domesticated animals (Brooker, Cambie and Cooper, 1981) Alkaloids and a glycoside cause toxic symptoms (Brooker, Cambie and Cooper, 1981)